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Are Handwritten Intentions Enforceable? Princess Diana Thought So…

Holographic wills: are they enforceable?

Princess Diana of Wales was one of the world’s most loved celebrities – and one of the richest. Her tragic death in 1997 was world news. The majority of her estate, reportedly worth $40 million at the time of her death, was divided between Prince William and Prince Harry in her estate plan.

However, she also wrote a “letter of wishes” that directed her executors to give a number of personal effects to her godchildren. Those executors, her mother and her sister, went to court and had it ruled unenforceable.

Holographic Wills – Sometimes Enforceable, Sometimes Not

Princess Diana’s letter of wishes is similar to what’s known as a holographic will in the United States. In the most simple terms, holographic wills are handwritten documents which may or may not have to be signed.

State laws vary on whether holographic wills can be enforced and how they must be prepared. Approximately half of U.S. states allow them and those require the matter to be probated. Some of the issues which frequently arise concerning holographic wills include:

  • Did the decedent write the will? In contested cases, handwriting experts are often used to determine validity.


  • Undue Influence. Was the decedent unduly influenced to create the will? That’s difficult to prove – or disprove – as they do not have to be witnessed.


  • Does the holographic will accurately describe the decedent’s intentions? Again, without witnesses (creating an actual last will and testament generally requires two), that becomes difficult to answer.

The question becomes – if you believe that no one will contest your holographic will (and it is legal in your state), should you skip the lawyers altogether? The answer is NO.

Generally, in Maryland, holographic wills are not enforceable. However, a handwritten will is enforceable if the will was entirely written in the handwriting of a service member serving overseas in the United States military, and the handwritten will was signed by the service member outside of a State of the United States, the District of Columbia, or a territory of the United States.


Holographic Wills: Don’t Subject Your Wishes to Scrutiny

The whole purpose of creating a document, any document, which spells out your intentions upon death is to make it enforceable. Although last will and testaments still go through probate, they provide the court with a signed and witnessed document which is likely to reflect your intentions. Holographic wills are less likely to hold up in court and will be subject to a great deal more scrutiny.

The bottom line is that creating a will, a trust, or any other type of estate planning document is easy – when handled by an estate planning attorney. In effect, the process is simple and consists of having a conversation about your intentions, listing assets, and creating a legal document which will carry those intentions out. Sadly, Princess Diana’s godchildren got nothing. Don’t let someone else decide what you did, or did not, intend.

Let’s ensure you do it right; call McDonald Law Firm now at (443) 741-1088 and Andre O. McDonald, an experienced Howard County estate planning attorney, will advise you on how not to make the same mistake as Princess Diana made.



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For help with estate planning, special needs planning or elder law throughout Howard, Montgomery, Prince George’s, Anne Arundel, and Baltimore County; and Baltimore City, contact McDonald Law Firm, LLC.

McDonald Law Firm, LLC

Columbia Office

10500 Little Patuxent Pkwy, #420
Columbia, MD 21044-3563

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7315 Wisconsin Avenue, Suite 800 West
Bethesda, MD 20814

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Washington, DC 20037

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